Puddling produced structural-grade iron at a relatively low cost. It was a means of decarburizing pig iron by slow oxidation, with iron ore as the oxygen source, as the iron was manually stirred using a long rod. Puddling was done in a reverberatory furnace, allowing coal or coke to be used as fuel.Pig iron - Wikipedia,Pig iron, also known as crude iron, is an intermediate product of the iron industry in the production of steel which is obtained by smelting iron ore in a blast furnace.Pig iron has a very high carbon content, typically 3.8–4.7%, along with silica and other constituents of dross, which makes it very brittle and not useful directly as a material except for limited applications.Wrought iron - Wikipedia,Wrought iron is an iron alloy with a very low carbon content (less than 0.08%) in contrast to that of cast iron (2.1% to 4%). It is a semi-fused mass of iron with fibrous slag inclusions (up to 2% by weight), which gives it a "grain" resembling wood that is visible when it is etched or bent to the point of failure. Wrought iron is tough, malleable, ductile, corrosion resistant, and easily welded.
Iron processing, use of a smelting process to turn the ore into a form from which products can be fashioned.Included in this article also is a discussion of the mining of iron and of its preparation for smelting. Iron (Fe) is a relatively dense metal with a silvery white appearance and distinctive magnetic properties. It constitutes 5 percent by weight of the Earth’s crust, and it is the,Glossary of Mining Terms - SEC,Bessemer - An iron ore with a very low phosphorus content.,A method of stoping in narrow-vein deposits whereby the wallrock on one side of the vein is blasted first and then the ore. Reverberatory furnace - A long, flat furnace used to slag gangue minerals and produce a matte.Missouri Department of Natural Resources,In the Potosi area, Moses Austin erected the first reverberatory furnace, and by 1802 was smelting ore for the entire Potosi region, tripling the yield per pound. Other discoveries made during this time led to lead mining in what are now Washington, Jefferson, Madison and St. Francois counties.